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The Political Process

Q&A on Mexico's Electoral Process

  • Sunday, June 2, 2024

  • In total, there will be 20,263 positions up for election in 2024. At the federal level, there are 629 positions for which elections will be held, including the Presidency, the Senate (128 positions), and the Chamber of Deputies (500 positions). Across Mexico’s 31 states and capital, there will be 19,634 positions up for election and eight states (Chiapas, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Morelos, Puebla, Tabasco, Veracruz, and Yucatán) will host gubernatorial elections, plus Mexico City's election for Head of Government.

  • Mexico uses a federal model of government and power is divided between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches - both at the federal and state level. 

    • September 7: federal electoral process begins
    • November 5: registration deadline for federal electoral coalitions
    • November 20-26: federal pre-campaign begins and lasts 60 days
    • January 1-15: registration of electoral platforms
    • January 19-25: federal pre-campaign period ends
    • February 29: registration of federal candidates 
    • March 1: election campaign period begins
    • May 29: election campaign period ends 
    • June 2: election day
    • June 5-8: district vote counts
    • June 9: federal entity and constituency vote counts
  • Instituto Nacional Electoral (National Electoral Institute), also referred to as INE, is an autonomous, constitutionally mandated institution responsible for ensuring free, fair, and democratic elections in Mexico. The INE organizes and supervises elections at the federal, state, and local levels. Responsibilities of the INE include: administering voter ID photo card (credencial de elector), maintaining a nationwide voter registry with biometric information, organizing and installing polling stations across the country, overseeing campaign expenses and candidate access to media airtime, and issuing election results. Organismos Públicos Locales (Local Public Organisms), also referred to as OPLs, organize state elections. 

  • All Mexican citizens (by birth or naturalization) who are at least 18 years old on election day are eligible to vote in federal and local elections. Voters must register with the INE and have their credencial de elector (free, voter ID card that serves as the primary identification in Mexico). Mexican citizens residing abroad (596,179 individuals) are also eligible to vote in the presidential, senate, and gubernatorial elections and will do so via mail or electronic means. Some consulates will offer in-person voting. As of October 2023, 98.8 million Mexicans are on INE's electoral roll. As of 2019, those in preventive detention are eligible to vote, but incarcerated individuals are not. 

  • According to General Law of Electoral Institutions and Procedures (LGIPE), “The vote is universal, free, secret, direct, personal and non-transferable.” After registering with the INE and receiving their credencial de elector, voters have from 8am until 6pm to cast their votes on Election Day. Voters will input their electoral section (located on their voter ID) to the platform, Ubica tu casilla Elecciones 2024 (find your polling station 2024 elections), to determine their place of voting. Once at the polling station, voters enter into a private area and will mark (via pen and paper) their selection on the ballot. Voters mark their ballot with fingerprints, seal the ballot, and then publicly place it in the voting urn. 

  • Not only is this one of the biggest elections in Mexico’s recent history, but this election cycle coincides with the US election cycle - a phenomenon that only happens every 12 years. This election cycle, on both sides of the border, represents a key turning point in the bilateral relationship.